Human Capital Multidisciplinary Research Center

Research Digest

E. Agadullina. (09/2022). Digest #14 Measuring Perceived Economic Inequality: A Systematization of Methods (RU). Research project Psychology of Social and Economic Inequality.Project supervisor: Olga Voron. Editor: A. Andrianova.

The Human Capital Multidisciplinary Research Center has released the 14th issue of the research digest. It presents the results of the classification and analysis of various methods for measuring perceived economic inequality, carried out by the Department of Psychology (HSE University).

According to the author, the increase in economic inequality is one of the biggest global problems today. Different behavioral and well-being patterns of society are associated not only with the objective level of economic inequality, but also with ideas about how different well-being indicators (for example, income) and opportunities are distributed in the society. And if the assessing methods of inequality are widely presented in the literature, then with the change in people's perceptions of inequality, everything is much more complicated. The research digest presents a systematic analysis of existing ways to assess perceived economic inequality.

 


 

S. Palminteri, M. Lebreton. (08/2022). Digest #13 Context-Dependent Outcome Encoding in Human Reinforcement Learning (ING). Project supervisor: Olga Voron. Editor: A. Andrianova. Research project Context-Dependent Outcome Encoding in Human Reinforcement Learning.
 


 


O. Demidkina, K. Vishnevsky. (07/2022). Digest #12 Digital Technology and Society (RU). Research project Studying the Involvement of the Population in the Digital Environment, the Effects of ‘New Connectivity’ and Factors of Digital Inequality

The Human Capital Multidisciplinary Research Center has released the 12th issue of the research digest. In it, the authors found out that there is a direct relationship between public concern about the negative consequences of information and communication technologies and the emergence of new scientific research on how digital technologies affect human well-being.

The researchers posed a question: how do digital technologies affect human well-being? To address it, they developed their own concept of the Digital Well-Being Conditions Index, which makes it possible to compare the conditions created in Russia for the use of digitalization opportunities with the average indicators of OECD countries. According to the authors, The conditions created in Russia and in the OECD for the possibility of using e-government services are comparable, although the proportion of the population that does not have sufficient skills to use public services online is slightly higher than the OECD average in our country.

 



I.Okunev, M. Tislenko. (06/2022). Digest #11 Geography of Socio-economic Inequality in the World  (RU). Research project Spatial analysis of the factors of regional distribution of human potential in Russia and in the world

The Human Capital Multidisciplinary Research Center has released the 11th issue of the research digest. In it, academic scholars are presenting the results of applied research on the spatial distribution of socioeconomic inequality, conducted by the Center for Spatial Analysis of International Relations at MGIMO University.

The researchers posed a question: how does space affect the distribution of inequality? To address it, they selected 10 global indicators of inequality and investigated them using methods of spatial econometrics. According to the authors, inequality is a phenomenon that can be viewed in different dimensions – gender, culture, race, age, etc. However, inequality proved to be a less "geographically concentrated" category, and socio-economic inequality is not an exclusive feature of emerging economies or conventionally non "Western" communities. This is a positive finding, indicating the limitations of the notion that the institutional reproduction of inequality has geographical nature, including the framework of path dependence theory.



 

M. Denisenko, N. Mkrtchyan. (05/2022). Digest #10 Demographic Changes and Labor Supply in Russian Regions (RU). Research project Analysis and Forecasting of Long-term Demographic and Migration Trends in Russia: Development of Multivariate Scenarios, Assessment of Socio-economic Consequences and Political Risks in a Changing Global World

The Human Capital Multidisciplinary Research Center has published the tenth issue of the research digest. The researchers suggest that in Russia, as in many other countries, the trend towards depopulation and demographic aging is already accompanied by a decline in the working-age population.

According to the authors of the research, Russia is experiencing new developments in the nature and consequences of changes in the size and composition of the population. As a result of the decline in the birth rate, each subsequent generation of children, on average, is smaller than the generation of parents. The workforce will inevitably age, and this is a very serious challenge to the Russian economy.


 

S. Mareeva, E. Slobodenyuk, V. Anikin. (04/2022). Digest #9 Russian Perceptions of Income Inequality: Does Social Mobility Affect Them? (RU). Research project Social Stratification, Poverty and Inequality.

The Human Capital Multidisciplinary Research Center has published the ninth issue of the research digest. It presents the results of an empirical study how social mobility affects the perception of inequality, carried out by the Center for Stratification Studies of the Institute of Social Policy (HSE University).

The researchers found that the reasons for the universal ideas of Russians about inequality and the lack of influence on them of experience and expectations of mobility, which are partly contrary to the results of previous studies, may lie in the peculiarities of the configuration of inequality in Russia with its characteristic significant separation of a very small elite from the rest of the population, instability mass well-being, as well as the specifics of the formation of ideas about the structure of society on the basis of norms and values, and not one's own life situation.


 

 

N. Spizina, N. Balinova. (03/2022). Digest #8 Kalmyks. Problems of Nomadic Group Adaptation in Russia. Anthropology, Biodemography and Reproduction (RU). Research project Anthropological Diversity and Adaptive Capacity in Human Populations.

Researchers from IEA RAS examined the changes in the structure of the modern rural Kalmyk population. They found that over 90 years, Kalmyk men's height and other indicators of physical development had changed, but the body structure remained the same, indicating that harmonious development had occurred. The authors concluded that in rural Kalmyk populations, there was a demographic transition from natural reproduction to a regulated type, which is more characteristic for the urban population.

 



S. Ryazantsev, M. Khramova, V. Gnevasheva. (02/2022). Digest #7 International Migration during the COVID-19 Pandemic (RU). Research Project International Migration. Moscow State Institute of International Relations (MGIMO University).

Researchers analyze how international migration has changed during the COVID-19 pandemic. They conclude that the main risks for migrants during this period have been the closure of state borders, the suspension of government agencies work and changes in working conditions. Researchers also note that migrants have started to transfer less money to their countries of origin, which has had a negative impact on the economies of those countries. A part of labor migrants has returned to their home countries, which led to an increase in unemployment there. 

The authors of the digest also analyze changes in the scale of international migration in the Russian Federation during the period of restrictive measures and evaluated the timing and possibilities of its recovery.



 

V. Boos, M. Gershman, E. Kutsenko. (02/2022). Special Issue. Creative Specializations of Russian Cities (RU). Research project Identifying and Evaluating Creative Specializations of Russian Cities. National Research University Higher School of Economics (HSE University).

Scientists conducted an analysis on a sample of 197 cities with a population of more than 100 thousand people, including Moscow and St. Petersburg. They found out that on the background of significant heterogeneity of creative industries and, as expected, their maximum concentration in metropolitan areas, many Russian cities with a population under 500 thousand people are not inferior to larger ones in terms of creative activity. 

 


M. Butovskaya, V. Burkova (01/2022). Digest #1 (6) Social Behavior under COVID-19: Dimensions, Gender and Culture (RU). Research project Human Biosocial Nature as a Resourse for Adaptation to Global Challenges. Russian Academy of Sciences Miklouho-Maklay Institute of Ethnology and Anthropology (IEA RAS).

This digest presents the results of a large-scale cross-cultural project on the topic of social behavior under COVID-19, carried out by the Center for Cross-Cultural Psychology and Human Ethology of the Institute of Ethnology and Anthropology of the Russian Academy of Sciences. The data shows that such factors as country of residence, gender and age of the respondent, living conditions, the level of power distance, collectivist and individualist features of the country of residence, awareness of the prescribed rules of behavior, cultural norms and traditions have an impact on individual behavior of people during pandemic. 

The group at greatest risk of negative psychological consequences against the backdrop of the pandemic are young women living with their families. In general, those who lived with relatives/friends reported higher anxiety scores. Another important factor influencing
anxiety was age: the older generation appeared to be more stress-resistant, despite being in one of the risk groups for coronavirus. Women compared to men were more anxious about the pandemic situation.

Stress levels during the pandemic increased significantly. The study data shows that participants from more free countries have higher levels of anxiety in the background of the pandemic, while collectivist countries with a more rigid vertical of power and less tolerant of violations of accepted norms and traditions are more successful — their residents are less anxious. 


D. Didenko. (12/2021). Digest #5 Long-Term Trends in Income Inequality in Russia: What Do Long-Term Series of Statistical Dynamics Tell Us? (RU). Research Project Studying Formation and Development of Human Capital in Russia in the Global Context: Long-term Tendencies, Factors, Structural Dynamics (from the 19th century to the beginning of the 21st century). Russian Academy of National Economy and Public Administration (RANEPA).

The digest focuses on long-term historical trends in income inequality in Russia from the 19th century to the present, primarily on wage differentials. Researchers have characterized the sources of information on inequality, adjusted and supplemented the data series constructed in previous works. They also demonstrated cyclical dynamics of income inequality with alternating periods of systemic transformation and evolutionary development during periods of market economy and centralized management in the economy.


A. Donina, D. Kolesnik, A. Pestova. (11/2021). Digest #4 What to do with the employment of women with children in Russia? The Role of Pre-school Educational Facilities (RU). Research project Evaluating the Impact of Social Policy for Families with Children on Women's Labor Supply and their Human Capital. Moscow State Institute of International Relations (MGIMO University).

Researchers from MGIMO Center for International Economics Research found out how to increase the employment rate of women with children in Russia and what prevents this from happening. Researchers stressed that women in Russia with young children under the age of three have little involvement in economic activity. One of the reasons is the low level of availability of pre-school education and childcare facilities for young children. The low employment rate is also caused by the spread of traditional gender norms. 

Researchers noted that in many countries support for pre-school education and child care facilities in the form of direct provision of these services at government expense or government subsidies for these services is an effective policy measure. The authors concluded that public investments in improving access to pre-school education have a return in two years.


T. Paschenko, N. Avdeenko, M. Gasinets. (10/2021). Digest #3 Can Schools Teach Thinking? (RU) Research project Mechanisms and Factors of Key Skills and Competencies Development. Higher School of Economics (HSE University)

Researchers from HSE Educational Content Design Laboratory told what is known about the formation of creative and critical thinking in education. These skills, according to surveys, are considered by employers to be the most important ones for their employees. Formation of thinking begins at school, it is closely connected with learning activities. 

Memory, attention and background knowledge are essential to the development of critical and creative thinking. However, acquiring new knowledge and memorizing facts must be combined with solving tasks that require high-order thinking skills.

Researchers emphasized that creativity is formed in a learning environment where there is mutual respect, teachers can engage in open dialogue with students and share ideas, and learning is collaborative. Researchers consider a hybrid learning format to be the most advantageous strategy for developing creative and critical thinking. In this format, students are simultaneously introduced to common ways of developing critical and creative thinking and shown how these ways can be applied to the subject material.


B. Sokolov, M.Zavadskaya, N. Soboleva, M. Ukhvatov, A. Shirokanova, A. Scherbak. (09/2021). Digest #2 Values in Crisis: the Sociology of the Coronavirus (RU). Research project Values and Attitudes Trends during the COVID-19 Pandemic in a Comparative Perspective. Higher School of Economics (HSE University)

HSE Laboratory for Comparative Social Research analyzed key social and political consequences of coronavirus pandemic first wave in Russia and compared the most interesting findings with the situation in other countries 

Scientists found that there are a lot of COVID-skeptics in Russia (38%). Such people doubt the seriousness of this disease or the need for government measures to fight it. In Russia and in many other countries, individual trust in the national health system is reduced by COVID-skepticism and the belief that social media provides more reliable information than traditional media.

It turned out that more religious Russians generally tend to favor the Russian authorities, including the disease-control measures they were taking, despite the fact that certain groups of believers had a conflict with the government in the spring of 2020. 

People who lost their jobs during the first phase of the pandemic were less satisfied with their lives, but having adult children reverses this effect. However, kids were a distraction for people who worked remotely — this manifested itself in a lower level of subjective well-being compared to remoters who did not have children. 


S. Beredikhin, V. Vlasov, N. Gavrilova, M. Gerchman, L. Gokhberg, A. Demianova, I. Ivanova, Y. Popova. (08/2021). Digest #1 Development of Creative Industries in Russia: Key Indicators (RU). Research project Methodological Foundations for Measuring the Socio-economic Characteristics of Creative Industries and the Creative Class. Higher School of Economics (HSE University)

In recent years creative industries as a promising segment of economy have attracted the attention of politicians, experts and scientists. The development of creative industries has many positive effects on the economy and society, including the growth of small and medium-sized business, job creation and so on. The authors of the digest tried to answer the question: why is russian creative economy not developing fast enough?

According to researchers, the low growth rate of russian creative industry is mainly due to the general stagnation and slowdown in economic growth after the 2014 crisis. The decline in activity in the real sector caused a decline in demand for goods and services that are classified as creative. Between 2015 and 2019, there was a gradual rise in these markets, including the growth of its individual segments, such as online advertising. However, starting from early 2020, the pandemic has had a negative impact on creative industries around the world.