The group of authors included Oksana Sinyavskaya, Svetlana Biryukova, Elizaveta Gorvat, Daria Kareva, Daria Stuzhuk, Kirill Chertenkov. Edited by Svetlana Biryukova.
Employment in the digital economy, including that on online platforms, is a new and rapidly growing form of non-standard employment. The attention to it has increased all over the world during the COVID-19 pandemic. The research of the HSE Institute for Social Policy concerns the issue of assessing the scale of platform employment in Russia, and also reveals the main motives and barriers to the participation of workers in platform employment. A special focus has been made on analyzing the impact of the COVID-19 crisis on the evolution of the platform segment in different countries of the world, including Russia, and on discussing possible prospects for its development in the face of sanctions pressure.
The report «Breakthrough Innovations: Human Being 2.0»
The group of authors included Sergey Gavrish, Leonid Gokhberg, Daria Gribkova, Yu. Dyugovanets, Albert Efimov, Yulia Milshina, Dmitriy Payson, Alexander Sokolov, Sofia Chernogortseva. Edited by Leonid Gokhberg, Albert Efimov, Yulia Milshina.
The report presents the results of a joint study by the Institute for Statistical Studies and Economics of Knowledge (ISSEK) of the National Research University - Higher School of Economics and the Research and Innovation Department of Sberbank. The key global trends that determine the development trajectories of the most important components of human potential, and technologies aimed at improving the physical and mental abilities of a person are considered.
The group of authors included Pavel Sorokin, Isak Frumin, Evgeniy Terentiev, Yulia Koreshnikova.
The report, prepared within the framework of the strategic project "Success and Independence of Man in a Changing World", which is part of the Priority 2030 program, presents the key practical and theoretical grounds for the hypothesis that the main request for a person is the request for independence. The first part of the report provides answers to the questions: «What is independence? What does it mean to be independent in various spheres of public and private life?» The second part deals with how the education system (on the example of higher education) is responding today and may respond in the future to the demand for autonomy in terms of organizational design, pedagogical practices and methodologies for assessing educational results. Particular attention is paid to the rapidly growing field of entrepreneurship education, which, both in Russia and abroad, constitutes one of the key frontiers in the development of universities.
The team of authors included Elena Selezneva, Oksana Sinyavskaya, Evgeniy Yakushev, Elizaveta Gorvat, Natalia Grishchenko, Daria Kareva. Scientific editor is Oksana Sinyavskaya.
According to the study, a pilot project has been implemented in Russia to create a long-term care system (LTC), an important social program for modern aging societies, which allows not only to improve the quality of life of people with self-service deficiencies, but also to make a certain contribution to achieve the national goal of increasing life expectancy. The project has been implemented within the framework of the Demography national project since 2018.
The report, prepared within the framework of the “Demographic and social factors of active longevity” and directed by “The Human Capital Multidisciplinary Research Center”, is devoted to an overview of international recommendations and foreign experience in the field of long-term care for people with self-care deficits and an assessment of their relevance for Russia. Along with a discussion of the experience of other countries, the report presents the results of an analysis of Russian approaches to the formation of a model and regulatory framework for the CDS. The work is intended for a wide range of readers, including decision makers in the field of social services and long-term care, as well as for the expert and business community, researchers, teachers, students and journalists.
The team of authors included Ekaterina Andreeva, Svetlana Biryukova, Natalia Voronina, Elizaveta Gorvat, Elena Gorina, Alexandra Goryainova, Daria Kareva, Maria Nagernyak, Elena Nazarbaeva, Alina Pishnyak, Dmitriy Pomazkin, Daria Popova, Elena Selezneva, Oksana Sinyavskaya, Sergey Ter-Akopov, Maria Ustinova, Natalia Halina. Scientific editors are Lilia Ovcharova and Oksana Sinyavskaya.
The focus of the presented report was an analysis of the main trends in the formation of the Russian system of social protection in its broad definition, including non-insurance measures of social protection, pensions and social services, and the forks in its development in the medium term. The report analyzes to what extent the coronavirus pandemic has affected the main challenges and problems facing Russian social protection, what were the key decisions in the field of anti-crisis support for the population during the pandemic, and how they affected poverty and inequality. The period of the pandemic is also important because there was a turn towards priority support for needy families with children.
The report presents the latest results of research into changes in the population's requests for social support, as well as the issues of using the time budget as a component of a comprehensive assessment of the quality of life of the population. It discusses what lessons can be learned from the experience of the crisis associated with the pandemic for the future development of Russian social protection, including in the context of the turbulence that arose in 2022. The consequences of this turbulence, which are not yet fully understood, are likely to prompt adjustments in some of the estimates and projections presented in the report, but, in the opinion of the authors, this will mainly concern specific quantitative parameters, and not directions of development. The materials of the report are intended for a wide range of readers, including decision-makers in the field of social policy, the expert and scientific community, and journalists.
The team of authors included Veronika Vinogradova, Olga Glezer, Raisa Gracheva, Alexandra Dorina, Alexander Zolotokrylin, Alexander Kotov, Nikolay Kurichev, Boris Morgunov, Vladimir Potashnikov, Andrey Ptichnikov, Liliana Proskuryakova, George Safonov, Yulia Safonova, Anastasia Semakina, Igor Semiletov, Anton Sizonov, Andrey Stetsenko, Tatiana Titkova, Natalia Shakhova, Alexander Sheludkov. Edited by Liliana Proskuryakova.
The report analyzes global climate change and its impact on human potential, the economy and the environment. The latest results of studies of the climatic role of atmospheric methane emission from underwater permafrost hydrates in the Arctic are presented. Scenario forecasts of low-carbon development of the Russian economy up to 2050 make it possible to assess the potential for reducing greenhouse gas emissions and increasing carbon absorption by ecosystems, the effectiveness of carbon regulation measures in various industries and sectors of the economy. The publication presents assessments of climate change in Russian regions and recommendations for improving territorial resilience. The materials of the report can be useful to public administration, development institutions and organizations that carry out research and development as an information base for making decisions and scientific project planning.
The report «Structural Changes in Healthcare: Trends and Outlook». The team of authors included Sergey Shishkin, Igor Sheiman, Vasiliy Vlasov, Elena Potapchik, Svetlana Sazhina; executive editor is Sergey Shishkin.
The report provides a comparative analysis of structural changes in the healthcare systems of advanced economies that have gone through the second epidemiological transition, and in Russia, that is at the beginning of such a transition. Changes in the structure of the resource provision of healthcare, in the ratio of various types of medical care, in the organizational and technological structure of the healthcare system, the functionality and methods of interaction of its elements are considered. The reasons for the differences in structural changes in Russian healthcare are revealed. Promising directions for further changes in the industry are proposed.
The report «Higher Education Graduates in the Russian Labor Market: Trends and Challenges». The team of authors included Natalia Emelina, Ksenia Rozhkova, Sergey Roshchin, Sergey Solntsev, Pavel Travkin. Scientific editor is Sergey Roshchin.
According to the study, graduates of higher education are the bearers of the most modern and technologically advanced human capital that is necessary for the development of the national economy. The results of the employment of graduates, including the level of wages, reflect the demand for skills on the part of employers and serve as an indicator of the quality of education. The position of graduates of Russian universities in the labor market shows how effectively the higher education system can adapt to the challenges of the real economy and what the state policy should focus on.
The report touched upon the issues of return to education, labor mobility and inequality in the labor market. The characteristics of the received education (areas of training, academic achievements and levels of university selectivity) are considered. The use of a unique array of nationwide administrative data makes it possible to cover graduates of almost all universities in Russia and highlight the regional features of their employment.
The report "Inequality in Health Care" by Sergey Shishkin, Director of the HSE Center for Health Policy, is devoted to inequality in access to medical care in the years 1994-2017. The authors used the data from the HSE Russian Longitudinal Monitoring Survey, and surveys conducted in 2014 and 2017, as well as budgetary information from compulsory health insurance funds.
According to the study, the share of those who seek medical help in case of illness mostly depends on the type of settlement: residents of capitals and large cities go to see the doctor more often than in small towns and rural areas. At the same time, the authors found no significant differences in socio-demographic characteristics when analyzing the reasons not to seek medical help.
The costs (including informal payments) for medical services differ significantly. The highest level is observed in the southern regions of Russia, where 47% of patients pay for medical assistance, due to socio-cultural traditions, above all. After the reform of compulsory health insurance, inequality in the availability of medical care has decreased, and the difference in the expenditures of regional budgets on health care per capita has decreased. At the same time, the inequality of per capita spending of families on health care is significantly higher than income inequality in general. Wealth inequality remains the main factor contributing to inequality in healthcare access.
The report "Wage Inequality: Dynamics, Major Factors, Regional Differences, Impact of Labor Market Institutions", prepared by a team of researchers from the HSE Centre for Labour Market Studies analyzes various aspects of wage inequality, which is one of the critical mechanisms of income inequality. The authors considered the evolution of inequality in different parts of the wage distribution over 1994-2016. They decomposed it, provided a new assessment of the contribution of regional differences to wage inequality, and analyzed possible mechanisms of the influence on the inequality of the most important labor market elements, namely the minimum wage, employment protection legislation and unemployment benefits system.
The report "Inequality in Russia in comparison with other countries: income, wealth, opportunities" by Svetlana Mareeva, PhD in Sociology, Director of the HSE Centre for Stratification Studies at the HSE Institute for Social Policy and Ekaterina Slobodenyuk, PhD in Sociology, Senior Research Fellow at the HSE Institute for Social Policy, focused on Russia's ranks in the context of comparative assessments of inequality obtained using different methodologies. Based on statistical data and analytical reports from international organizations, the researchers showed that different approaches provide different estimates of Russia's degree and depth of inequality compared to other countries.
The report "Subjective Stratification of Russian Society: State, Dynamics, Key Problems" by Natalia Tikhonova, Research Professor and Chief Research Fellow at the HSE Institute for Social Policy, demonstrates that subjective social structure of Russian society has undergone fundamental changes in the last decade and a half: most Russians have stopped considering themselves social outsiders, while Russian society itself has become a society of massive lower middle class. The second feature of this structure is that Russians have no sustainable identities with the middle class, which has resulted in the inability of this class to perform as an actor for social change. The third characteristic is the increasing overestimation of the role of material well-being in determining social status and downgrading the prestige of the profession, education, etc. The stagnation of incomes in recent years has naturally led to a rapid increase in the demand for a homogenous society.
The report “Platform Employment: Definition and Regulation”. The team of authors comprised Oksana Sinyavskaya, Svetlana Biryukova, A. Aptekar, Elizaveta Gorvat, Natalia Grishchenko, Tatiana Gudkova and Darya Kareva (Institute for Social Policy of National Research University Higher School of Economics).
The report focuses on platform employment, its distinctive features, as well as the benefits and risks it creates from the point of view of the population involved and the economy in general. A special subject of the report is the analysis of in-depth interviews carried out in April-May 2021 to clarify the position of key public and private stakeholders on the regulation of platform employment in Russia.
The report “Measuring of Universal Competencies as an Outcome of Higher Education”. The team of authors comprised Svetlana Avdeeva, Pauline Gass, Elena Kardanova, Yulia Koreshnikova, Alyona Kulikova, Ekaterina Orel, Taras Paschenko and Pavel Sorokin. The Co-Chairs of the series editorial board are Candidate of economic sciences, HSE Rector Yaroslav Kuzminov and Doctor of Pedagogical Sciences, Academic Supervisor of the Institute of Education Isak Froumin.
The report focuses on the issue of evaluation and formation of universal competencies in higher education, complex constructs (critical thinking, creativity, communication, teamwork, etc.), which are associated with the person's success in various professional and life fields. The issue of evaluation of universal competencies is directly related to the issues of their formation and implementation in the educational process. By the example of critical thinking the report demonstrates the difficulties and challenges faced by the educational community along the way. The report concludes with a section on the opportunities that the evaluation of universal competencies provides for universities.
The team of authors comprised Veronika Vinogradova, Raisa Gracheva, Alexandra Dorina, Alexander Kotov, Nikolay Kurichev, Boris Morgunov, B. A. Morgunov, Vladimir Potashnikov, Liliana Proskuryakova, Andrey Ptichnikov, Georgy Safonov, Julia Safonova, Anastasia Semakina, Igor Semiletov, Anton Sizonov, Andrey Stetsenko, Ivan Frolov, Elena Cherenkova and Natalya Shakhova. Edited by Liliana Proskuryakova.
The report presents trends and factors in the development of various elements of natural resource and climatic systems, and describes their relationship with human potential.
It also considers the use of an integrated approach to analysing and predicting the risks associated with climate and ecosystems change, as well as the potential effects on people and society. The report concludes with recommendations on international cooperation, domestic policy measures, stakeholder engagement, fostering of research and development to address the challenges outlined in the report.
The report “Russia’s Pension System in the Context of Long-term Challenges and National Development Goals”. The team of authors comprised Oksana Sinyavskaya, Evgeny Yakushev and Anna Chervyakova.
The report focuses on a comprehensive study of Russian pension system development since the adoption at the end of 2012, the strategy of long-term development of the pension system in the Russian Federation up to the present and a discussion on future development vectors in the context of long-term challenges and national development goals. The report summarizes international, foreign and Russian approaches to quantitative monitoring of pension system development and identifies limitations of strategic planning in the Russian pension system. It also proposes an actuarial evaluation model for the Russian pension system and outlines conditions required for the introduction of actuarial evaluation of the Russian pension system, taking into account international recommendations.
The report “Labor Productivity and Russian Human Capital: Paradoxes of Interrelation?”.The team of authors comprised Daria Avdeeva, Natalia Akindinova, Ilya Voskoboynikov, Vladimir Gimpelson, Mikhail Denisenko, Yuri Simachev, Pavel Travkin and Anna Fedyunina. The head of the team of authors is Vladimir Gimpelson.
The report considers how the performance level in the Russian economy correlates with the available human capital. In terms of formal measures of accumulated human capital, Russia is among the world leaders, but in terms of productivity it is only at the middle level. The authors analyze the contribution of labor quality to economic and productivity growth and propose explanations why it is so small. The report also discusses participation of companies in workforce training and retraining and how training coverage changes with age of the worker.
The book by Sergey Malinovsky and Ekaterina Shibanova “Regional Differentiation of Higher Education Accessibility in Russia”. Edited by Yaroslav Kuzminov and Isak Froumin. Scientific editor is Lilia Ovcharova.
The book is devoted to the issue of inequality of access to higher education in Russia in its interregional dimension. This work analyzes territorially determined factors of higher education quantity and quality distribution, interregional differences in financial accessibility and the role of institutional differentiation of higher education landscape. These factors are examined through their connection with social factors of differentiation of educational opportunities.
The book by Pavel Sorokin, Alexander Povalko and Svetlana Chernenko “Teaching entrepreneurship in Russian and World Universities: Why, How and With What Results?”. Edited by Yaroslav Kuzminov and Isak Froumin.
Today's economy and society require a massive influx of tech entrepreneurs and leaders. For the education system this brings a challenge to prepare people for proactive action in the economic and social sphere. This book considers existing approaches to teaching and effectiveness evaluation for educational programs and courses in the field of entrepreneurship education in universities. It also offers an assessment of the factors affecting the effectiveness of such programs on the example of the course organized with the participation of Russian Venture Company.