Human Capital Multidisciplinary Research Center

7.2.1 The Welfare State in European Countries: Regional Peculiarities of the Formation and Use of Human Potential and Applicability of Experience in Russia

Vladislav Vorotnikov
Project Leader

Project period


Context of Research Project within a Subject of Human Capital

The development of European states is based on the principles of a social market economy aimed at creating favorable conditions for the formation and development of human potential. A number of countries (primarily the Nordic ones) are among the undisputed world leaders in terms of the level of support and quality of human capital. This provides them with scientific and technological leadership in the conditions of the fourth industrial revolution, allows them to adapt more effectively to changes in the nature and organization of work, management and communication systems (including robotics, digitalization and the introduction of artificial intelligence).

European countries have managed to create developed and generally effective social security systems, which, on the one hand, are based on the general principles of the welfare state, and on the other hand, are characterized by their own unique features reflecting the specifics of the social, political and economic development of a country or region. The identification of these specific features, as well as the assessment of the best and most effective norms and practices will allow us to formulate the most relevant recommendations for developing the social system of a modern state in the face of urgent challenges. First of all, such challenges can be understood as a potential decrease in the quality and quantity of social guarantees provided in the conditions of the neoliberal trend in the economic policy of developed countries and changes in the demographic pattern of population reproduction (the problem of aging and the dependence of the overall population growth rate on migration, rather than natural increase) in Western countries, which often lead to the need to adjust the economic course.

Assessing the sustainability of  the modern welfare state system in the conditions of ongoing changes in the demographic and migration situation is not only of considerable scientific interest, but can also lead to new theoretical and, most importantly, practice-oriented results that can be used in developing an optimal course for the development of human capital.

Project Aim

Study and systematize the experience of European countries in the creation of  a welfare state in terms of its impact on the formation and use of human capital.

Project Objectives

  1. Analyze the distinctive features of European social security systems and assess the prospects for the sustainability of European social systems in the context of modern demographic and migration dynamics;
  2. Create an integral theoretical approach to the study of social models in European states, develop an original classification of European practices in the field of social policy adapted to modern political and economic realities; assessment of their effectiveness in terms of their impact on the formation of human capital;
  3. Identify the potential impact of deepening Eurasian integration on the Russian social sphere, develop practical recommendations on the use of European experience for the development of Russian human capital in the context of the ‘big challenges’ of the XXI century;
  4. Assess the potential for further economic and political transit in Russia, taking into account its impact on the social sphere; analyze opportunities for Russia in terms of human development of the Russian-EU border region.

Key Findings


A strategy and methodology for the study of entrepreneurial activity in the border regions of Russia and the EU (Baltic states) engaged in small business have been formed.


The author's definitions of key concepts (the social state, human potential and human capital) have been formulated, the operationalization of classical taxonomies of social state models  has been carried out. The modern changes in the models of capitalism and the welfare state in the countries of Central and Eastern Europe have been revealed. The influence of non-economic factors of transformation and the parameters of the elasticity of the system in relation to crises on the functioning of the welfare state has been studied.


  1. Simonyan, R. Comparative Analysis of Students’ Attitudes Towards Migration in Russian Borderlands // Filosofija, Sociologija. 2021. Vol. 32, Nr. 2, p. 150-158
  2. Barabanov O., Maslova E. The International Decarbonization Regime as a Tool for Implementing Risk Society Values (RU) // World Economy and International Relations, 2022, vol. 66, No. 5, pp. 112-119


Methodological seminar with international participation The Welfare State in Europe: Models, Development Paths, Forecast (RU) (MGIMO, March 29, 2021)

Methodological seminar with international participation The Social Agenda of The Party-Political Development of Modern Europe (RU) (MGIMO, July 6, 2021)

Methodological seminar with international participation Non-Economic Factors of the Welfare State Evolution : Experience for Russia (RU) within the 13th Russian International Studies Association (RISA) Convention (MGIMO, October 15, 2021)

Section Woman in a Social state (RU) within the 13th Russian International Studies Association (RISA) Convention (MGIMO, October 16, 2021)

Methodological seminar with international participation Labor and Capital During the ‘Coronacrisis’ in Regions of Europe (RU) (MGIMO, December 21, 2021)