Human Capital Multidisciplinary Research Center

1.1.9 Resources for Human Capital Development and Improvement of Quality of Life in Russia: Response to Current Threats and Possible Models of Development

Tatyana Maleva
Project Leader

Context of Research Project within a Subject of Human Capital

Well-being growth and human capital development in Russia have been threatened due to the coronavirus pandemic that has engulfed the world and the economic crisis. The new challenges faced by countries have not only economic consequences (due to the risk of declining incomes and rising unemployment), but also demographic ones (dramatic structural shifts in the gender and age structure and health status of the population), and those related to changes in the labor market (emergence of new forms of employment and distant forms of work).

The research project Resources for Human Capital Development and Improvement of Quality of Life in Russia: Response to Current Threats and Possible Models of Development is devoted to analyzing the current state and ways to develop various components of human capital in Russia. It will describe such key components of human capital as citizens’ well-being of, inequality, health and labor characteristics, as well as analyze aspects that determine the state and further human capital development.

Project Aim

Analyzing the current state and ways to develop various components of human capital

Project Objectives:

  1. Empirical analysis of the impact of the development of the human capital of families with children on poverty reduction and income growth of the population, development of recommendations aimed at developing the human capital of families with children in order to reduce poverty and increase the income of the population.
  2. Analysis of socio-demographic and territorial characteristics of the health of the population of the Russian Federation, empirical analysis of the contribution of inequality of opportunity to inequality of health in the Russian Federation.
  3. Development of demographic indicators for assessing human capital, study of the contribution of demographic processes to the current and future state of human capital in the regions of the Russian Federation.
  4. Construction and analysis of the forecast of the labor force in the Russian Federation as a whole and at the regional level, development of recommendations for labor market policy.

Key Findings


The analysis of the dynamics of entry into motherhood in modern Russia has been carried out


The analysis of the ‘sandwich syndrome’ effect on the employment and health of individuals has been carried out. The consequences and effects on employment and wages related to the polarization of jobs, the specifics of labor income inequality, and the aging of the population have been discussed. It was revealed that, in general, the ‘sandwich syndrome’ has a negative impact on the probability of employment of individuals, increases the probability of remote employment, but does not affect wages. An assessment of the effective retirement age and the factors determining it has been made, for the first time performed on Russian data


The contribution of inequality of opportunities to income inequality has been analyzed (objective estimates), as well as the subjective perception of inequality of opportunities by the population (subjective estimates), and a comparison of objective and subjective indicators of inequality of opportunities has been carried out on the example of three regions of the Russian Federation (Moscow, Stavropol Territory, Chelyabinsk Region).

It is shown that the contribution of inequality of opportunities to population inequality at the regional level is 9-12% for labor income and 8-12% for average per capita income, the integral index of subjective perception of inequality of opportunities shows that 14-20% of the population in the regions assess the problem of inequality of opportunities as important or very important, and 5-11% as very important. It is revealed that a high level of education and self-assessment of one's own financial situation reduce the acuteness of the perception of inequality of opportunities, and the perception of inequality is largely determined not by the place of residence, but by the individual characteristics of respondents, while objective and subjective assessments of regional inequality of opportunities differ markedly.

A study has been conducted to analyze the factors of pension growth in the long term in Russia until 2050. It is shown that the implementation of various factors and measures can provide in 2030-2050 the coefficient of the relative level of pensions (to the average salary) about 40%; the theoretical replacement coefficient (with 35 years of experience and average salary in the Russian Federation) - about 50%; the ratio of the average pension payment for non-working recipients of the old-age insurance pension to the pensioner's subsistence minimum - about 250% in the period 2030-2035 and 380% by 2050; the decrease in the share of pensioners whose pension payment is less than this minimum is almost twice as compared with the inertial scenario - up to 6-8%.

Соотношение среднего размера пенсионной выплаты и прожиточного минимума пенсионера (в %)


Makarentseva, A. Dynamics of Entry into Motherhood in Modern Russia // Journal The World of Russia. Sociology. Ethnology. - 2022. - №1.


Joint scientific and practical online conference of RANEPA and HSE on the topic Labor Market: Demographic Challenges and Human Capital (June 8-9, 2021)